Oracle and JAVA EE

Those of you in the “Java EE” may have already seen the announcement from Oracle that was posted yesterday concerning the future of Java EE. This is potentially very exciting news, particularly for the various Apache projects that implement some of the Java EE specs. Since Apache CXF implements a couple of the specs (JAX-WS and JAX-RS), I’m looking forward to seeing where Oracle goes with this.

For those that don’t know, several years ago, I spent a LOT of time and effort reviewing contracts, the TCK licenses, sending emails and proposals back and forth with Oracle’s VP’s and Legal folks in an attempt to allow Apache to license some of the TCK’s (Technology Compatibility Kit) that the Apache projects needed. In order to claim 100% compliance with the spec, the projects need to have access to the TCK to run the tests. Unfortunately, Apache and Oracle were never able to agree on terms that would allow the projects to have access AND be able to act as an Apache project. Thus, we were not able to get the TCK’s. Most of the projects were able to move on and continue doing what they needed to do, but without the TCK’s, that “claim of compliance” that they would like is missing.

I’m hoping that with the effort to open up the Java EE spec process, they will also start providing access to the TCK’s with an Open Source license that is compatible with the Apache License and Apache projects.

Talend ESB Performance Tuning

I’ve spent quite a bit of time the last several weeks doing some performance tuning and profiling and such on the Talend ESB and decided to share some things I’ve learned.

How this all started: Asankha Perera contacted me in early July as they started preparing for round 6 of their ESB Performance benchmarks as they ran into a security related issue: Talend’s ESB was now rejecting the WS-Security messages due to the nonce cache that was added to prevent replay attacks. Since the benchmark is essentially a replay attack (sends the same message over and over again), Talend’s ESB was throwing an exception and blocking the benchmark from running. This is on top of the strict timestamp checking that Talend’s ESB has always done (and caused them issues last time as they had to regenerate the secure messages). From what I can tell, Talend’s ESB was the only one they needed to turn OFF various security things like this which likely means it’s the most secure of the ESB’s for WS-Security “out of the box”. Not too surprising given Talend’s excellent security folks. Anyway, as part of the report, he sent along some preliminary numbers for the other tests to look at. My initial look showed that the numbers were actually lower than round 5 which concerned me, which is why I dug in.

The initial investigation showed a configuration change was needed. The configs in the bitbucket repo were really for Talend ESB 5.0 and needed some minor updates for 5.1 to get the thread pool back up from 25 threads to the 300 threads the test calls for. That pretty much got the test results back up to round 5 levels, so I really could have left it at that, but I decided to take a little time and play some more.

Some things I discovered:

  1. System.getProperty(..) is synchronized – DON’T put this on a critical path. My very first “kill -3” during processing of the various small messages had over 180 threads (of the 300) blocked in here. I did some more investigation and found two major causes in the Talend ESB:
    • Bug/Regression in Woodstox – Woodstox was calling this for every Reader and Writer that was created. That’s 4 times per request for the proxy cases. I logged a bug with them (now resolved in their latest release) and downgraded Woodstox for the time being.
    • DocumentImpl constructor – for some reason, Sun/Oracle added a call to System.getProperty into the DocumentImpl constructor for the DOM implementation built into the JDK. CXF caches SOAP headers in a DOM so this added 2 more calls per request. Grabbing the latest xercesImpl and forcing that to be used solved this issue.

    Getting those fixed definitely helped reduce a bit of the contention.

  2. The next choke point I found was in CXF’s handling of the thread default Bus. We were getting and setting the thread default bus several times per request, but each of those calls was in a synchronized block. Re-engineering how that is handled eliminated that.
  3. Next up was the JMX metrics in Camel. Updating the JMX stats in Camel is in a big synchronized block (which then calls a bunch of other synchronized methods on other objects). This is on my TODO to re-look at, but for the purpose of this test, I just turned off the JMX metrics. Most likely, just using Atomic values would allow removing the sync block. Not really sure though.
  4. The final major “synchronized” block I hit is in the HTTP keep-alive cache in the JDK. Nothing I can do about this one short term. Longer term, I’ve started working on a new Apache HTTP Components based HTTP transport (with the help of Oleg Kalnichevski) that may help, but not something for right now.

The above updates helped a little, but not really much, maybe a couple %. The main reason is that with 300 threads, even if 150 of them are blocked, there are still plenty of threads left able to do work. Removing the blocks just saved some time on context switches and cache hits and such.

That then got me looking into other things, primarily into Camel. I quickly discovered the XML handling in Camel is pretty poor. Eventually I’ll need to really look into to that, but for the short term, I was able to bypass much of it. The first thing I saw was that in SOME cases, the requests coming from CXF (which was passed from CXF to Camel as a streaming StaxSource) were being parsed into a DOM. What’s worse, due to the poor XML handling in Camel, the DocumentFactory and parser factories and such were being created to do so. That involves the SPI stuff in the JDK which involves a System property (see above) and a classpath search for stuff in /META-INF/services which is fairly slow in OSGi. Adding some extra type converters into Camel avoided all of that and provided a big boost.

I then started looking at some of the specific tests. For the content based routing, the original configs we had used XPath. However, the XPath stuff in Camel is again plagued by the poor XML handling which forced a DOM again. Ended up changing the test to use XQuery which performed much better.

The other thing I ended up doing was switch from PAYLOAD mode to MESSAGE mode for the CXF component for the tests that could be handled that way. This is a huge benefit. For the direct proxy and transport header cases, this allowed complete bypassing of all XML parsing. That’s huge.

Finally, I did some testing with using Apache Tomcat for the backend service instead of the toolbox thing that the folks originally specified. For Talend, using Tomcat helped significantly. We had a bunch of timeouts and other errors with the toolbox thing, and performance was a lot better with Tomcat. Since using Tomcat is likely more “realistic”, I argued to change the tests to use that (and provided some optimized Tomcat configs). This likely helped all the ESB’s results. You’re welcome!

For the most part, things ended up pretty good. If you look at the results graph at the bottom of, Talend’s ESB came out fairly good. One important measurement is the number of failures/timeouts: 0. Talend ESB and the UltraESB’s were the only ones to accomplish that. That alone is pretty cool. But the performance also ended up fairly good. I certainly have a lot more things to look at going forward, but for just a small amount of work, the results ended up quite good.

Video of my Apache CXF Presentation from CamelOne

I finally received the video of my presentation that I gave at CamelOne 2012 in Boston about the new features in Apache CXF. A little editing later (note for speakers: making sure the speaker agreement provides you with copies of any videos and complete rights to do anything you want with them is a good idea. Major thanks to the organizers for agreeing to that), a not-so-quick upload to YouTube, and voila:

If you are having trouble viewing the video, click here to go directly to YouTube.

Apache CXF split packages resolved!

A long time ago (ok, only 5.5 years ago), when Apache CXF was fist being spun up, we made a decision to try and separate the “API” and the “implementation” of the various CXF components into separate module. This was a very good idea for the most part. However, we did this prior to really investigating OSGi requirements (OSGi was just beginning to become well known). Thus, we didn’t take into account the OSGi split-package issue. The common pattern we used was to put the interfaces in cxf-api, and the “impl” in the exact same package in cxf-rt-core. In OSGi, that’s a big problem (without using fragments).

A few years ago, when users started really pushing the idea of using CXF in OSGi, we had to come up with a solution. I’ll admit we kind of took the “easy road” at the time. As part of the CXF build, we already were creating an “uber bundle” which contained all of the individual CXF modules squashed together into a single jar. We primarily did that to simplify classpath issues, dependencies, etc… for users (single jar to deal with, single pom dependency, etc…). When looking at options for OSGi, we saw that bundle as an “easy” path to OSGi. By adding OSGi manifest entries, CXF can be brought up in OSGi. Since ALL the packages are in that jar, no split-package issues.

For the most part, that setup has worked “OK”, but it’s really not ideal. CXF has a wide range of functionality, much of it may not be required by every user. The bundle ended up importing a LOT of packages. The current bundle imports about 240 packages. Thus, we had to go through and mark many of the imports “optional”. Over 160 of those imports are marked optional. (and likely some of the others could as well) This type of setup, while it “works”, is really less than ideal. It doesn’t work well with things like the OBR resolvers. It requires extra refreshes to add functionality that may be required by new bundles. It requires a lot of extra dependencies to be loaded upfront to reduce refreshes. Etc…

Over the past few weeks, Christian Schneider and I have been re-evaluating the split-package issue in CXF to try and come up with a better solution. An initial evaluation back in December found 25 packages that were split across jars. I have spent quite a bit of time the last couple weeks looking at each of those 25 split packages to figure out what can be done. We did hit some challenges and I ended up talking quite a bit with Christian about possible solutions, but I’m really happy to say that as of my commits this morning, all 25 are now resolved. All of the CXF individual modules are loadable as individual OSGi bundles. A couple of very simple test cases are working.

What kind of problems did we hit:

  • One of the main issues as mentioned above was an interface in API and then some sort of implementation in rt-core. For the most part, users always looked up the implementation via the bus.getExtension(..) call so the impl is really “private”. In those cases, the impl was moved to a new package in rt-core.
  • Abstract base classes in rt-core – similar to above. We had the interface in api, but an abstract base class in rt-core. There were then subclasses of that base class in the other modules. This really showed that the abstract base classes should have been part of the API, which is exactly what we did. Moved the class to API.
  • Promote some stuff to API – we did have a bunch of utility things in rt-core that was easily promoted to api. Things like our CachedOutputStream, mime attachment support, etc… that were easy to just promote up. They are heavily used in several submodules so it made sense to promote them anyway.
  • Pushed some optional stuff out of API – particular WS-Policy support. We did have some ws-policy related stuff in API that we could not resolve the split-package issue by promoting up. Thus, we pushed down into the cxf-rt-ws-policy. This may have an end user impact as they may need to have the cxf-rt-ws-policy module on their classpath to compile their code. However, they would have needed it on their classpath anyway to run the code so impact should be very minimal. The good thing about this is that this then reduces the imports in cxf-api by not requiring things like neethi for the api module. For JAX-RS users, this is good.

There were other issues caused by promoting stuff into API, but for the most part, they ended up being resolvable by loading an implementation via a bus extension. That seems to have cleaned things up quite a bit.

Anyway, it’s been a very challenging few weeks as we worked through all the split package issues. To be honest, the end result isn’t “ideal”. There is definitely more stuff in API than I’d really like to have there, but we were able to maintain a high degree of compatibility with existing applications. That’s important. Maybe when we do a “3.0” we can re-look at that, but for now, compatibility is very important. With the split package issue resolved, Christian and I are embarking on a new mission to examine the OSGi manifests of all the individual jars to adjust import version ranges, check for optionals, update the karaf features file, etc… One advantage of the big bundle was we only needed to do that in one place. Now we have many more touch points. However, the end result should definitely be a better experience for end users. I’m very excited about that.